This post explains for the regulator.
The Part Number is 7812CV, L7812CV.
The function of this semiconductor is 12V, Voltage Regualtor.
The package is TO-3, D2Pak, TO-220, ISOWATT220 Type.
Manufacturers : STMicroelectronics
Preview images :
The 7812CV, L7800 series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in TO-220 ISOWATT220 TO-3 and D2PAK packages and several fixed output voltages, making it useful in a wide range of applications.These regulators can provide local on-card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down and safe area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. […]
1. OUTPUT CURRENT UP TO 1.5 A
2. OUTPUT VOLTAGESOF 12 V
3. THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION
4. SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION
5. OUTPUT TRANSITION SOA PROTECTION